trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba

All the researchers should subsequently get together and discuss any divergent opinions concerning the categorization, like in the pilot phase mentioned earlier. By continuing to browse It is common that all data are first collected and then analyzed later. The use of figures can be highly effective when reporting content analysis findings, especially when explaining the purpose and process of the analysis and structure of concepts. Interview tapes, videos, and transcribed text should be examined carefully to critically assess the researcher’s own actions For instance, questions should be asked such as “Did I manipulate or lead the participant?” and “Did I ask too broad or structured questions?” Such evaluation should not only begin at the start of the study but also be supported by continuous reflection to ensure the trustworthiness of content analysis. She has also worked at the University of Oulu and development projects of social and health services in municipalities. Before choosing an analysis method, the researcher should select the most suitable method for answering the target research question and consider whether the data richness is sufficient for using content analysis. From the perspective of trustworthiness, a key question is, “What is the relationship between prefiguration and the data collection method, that is, should the researcher use descriptive or semi-structured questions?” Nowadays, qualitative content analysis is most often applied to verbal data such as interview transcripts (Schreier, 2012). In order to provide a different set for criteria that can be used for ascertaining the quality, Lincoln & Guba (1985) created a corresponding set of criteria for trustworthiness of qualitative research: (a) credibility (vs. internal validity), (b) transferability (vs. external validity), (c) dependability (vs. reliability) and (d) confirmability (vs. objectivity). Describing the concepts and how they have been created can often be challenging, which may hinder a complete analysis, particularly if the researcher has not abstracted the data, or too many different types of items have been grouped together (Dey, 1993; Hickey & Kipping, 1996). Guba and Lincoln ask the central question about the aims of any social research: “How do we know when we have specific social inquiries that are faithful enough to some human construction that we may feel safe in acting on them, or, more important, that Strategies for achieving trustwo … According to Schreier (2012), there is no clear dividing line between qualitative and quantitative content analysis, and similar terms and criteria for reliability and validity are often used. She is the second chairman of Finnish Research Society of Nursing Science. internal and external validity, reliability, and objectivity. The analysis process should be reported in an adequate manner regardless of the methods used to present the findings (see Moretti et al., 2011). Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. and faithfully, show a range of realities (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Polit & Beck, 2012) Researchers often struggle with problems that compro-mise the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings (de Casterlé, Gastmans, Bryon From the perspective of establishing credibility, researchers must ensure that those participating in research are identified and described accurately. Researchers have mainly used qualitative criteria when evaluating aspects of validity in content analysis (Kyngäs et al., 2011). However, such answers are often so brief that it is difficult to use content analysis effectively; reduction, grouping, and abstraction require rich data. Prior to using the method, the researcher should ask the question, “Is this method the best available to answer the target research question?” No analysis method is without drawbacks, but each may be good for a certain purpose. Both inductive and deductive content analysis processes involve three main phases: preparation, organization, and reporting of results. (2001) have argued that integrity is demonstrated by ongoing self-reflection and self-scrutiny to ensure that interpretations are valid and grounded in the data. It is also valuable to give clear descriptions of the culture, context, selection, and characteristics of participants. Authors may offer suggestions about transferability, but it is ultimately down to the reader’s judgment as to whether or not the reported results are transferable to another context (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). Trustworthiness. Introduction Qualitative content analysis is used mostly when the researcher wants to analyze qualitative data. In deductive content analysis, the organization phase involves categorization matrix development, whereby all the data are reviewed for content and coded for correspondence to or exemplification of the identified categories (Polit & Beck, 2012). For example, a study on the well-being and the supportive physical environment characteristics of home-dwelling elderly is likely to generate fairly heterogeneous data and may need more participants than if restrictions are applied, for example, studying only elderly aged above 85 years or those living in rural areas. RIGOR VERSUS TRUSTWORTHINESS Rigor of qualitative research continues to be challenged even now in the 21st centuryVfrom the very idea that qualitative researchaloneisopentoquestions,sowiththetermsrigor and trustworthiness. This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this competing paradigms in qualitative research by online. I have read and accept the terms and conditions. Table 1. While there are different ways to It is critical to understand rigor in research. This video describes Lincoln and Guba's trustworthiness framework related to qualitative research. Selection of the most appropriate sample size is important for ensuring the credibility of content analysis study (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). Sharing links are not available for this article. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. In this phase, it is essential to consider whether the categories are well created, what the level of interpretation is, and how to check the trustworthiness of the analysis. In qualitative content analysis, the abstraction process is the stage during which concepts are created. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Fletcher, I. Trustworthiness is all about establishing these four things, which are described in more detail below. Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. addressing the issue. evaluate qualitative research are those purported by Lincoln and Guba (1985). For example, the aim of the study may be merely to identify concepts. Based on the results of the literature search, the main trustworthiness issues in the preparation phases were identified as trustworthiness of the data collection method, sampling strategy, and the selection of a suitable unit of analysis. Guba and Lincoln 67 argue that perhaps the most significant accomplishment to date related to the authenticity criteria is simply its existence, a demonstration of the fact that it is possible to think outside in more creative and suitable ways about quality assessments. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It may be useful for the interview questions to be developed in association with a “critical reference group” (Pyett, 2003). Denzin and Lincoln, in qualitative research there is the aim to “transform the world.” This in itself has many nuances and varies among the different qualitative research strategies. Another criterion to ensure trustworthiness is dependability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Types of qualitative sampling include convenience, purposive, theoretical, selective, within-case and snowball sampling (Creswell, 2013; Higginbottom, 2004; Polit & Beck, 2012). Based on our research, the sampling method is rarely mentioned in qualitative content analysis studies (Kyngäs et. PERSPECTIVE ISSN: 2477-4073 ENSURING TRUSTWORTHINESS IN QUALITATIVE It has confirmability, which is largely an issue of contributed to the criticisms of bias from presentation.1 the eyes of the number of believers. The aim of trustworthiness in a qualitative inquiry is to support the argument that the inquiry’s findings are “worth paying attention to” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. (, Moretti, F., van Vliet, L., Bensing, J., Deledda, G., Mazzi, M., Rimondini, M., . Lincoln and Guba (1985) founded the trustworthiness criteria as a means to evaluate qualitative research. Whether this affects the trustworthiness of the results can only be speculated upon. Trustworthiness in the Preparation Phase in Content Analysis Study, Trustworthiness of Organization Phase in Content Analysis Study, Reporting Phase From the Viewpoint of Content Analysis Trustworthiness, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Emden, Hancock, Schubert, & Darbyshire, 2001, de Casterlé, Gastmans, Bryon, & Denier, 2012, Kyngäs, Elo, Pölkki, Kääriäinen, & Kanste, 2011, Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers, 2002, Burla, Knierim, Barth, Duetz, and Abel (2008), Tucker, van Zandvoort, Burke, & Irwin, 2011, http://www.aral.com.au/ari/p-ywadsworth98.html. Information on the sample size is essential when evaluating whether the sample is appropriate. Although Lincoln and Guba (1985) have described member checks as a continuous process during data analysis (e.g., by asking participants about hypothetical situations), it has largely been interpreted and used by researchers for verification of the overall results with participants. It is critical to understand rigor in research. Checklist for Researchers Attempting to Improve the Trustworthiness of a Content Analysis Study. To develop trustworthiness in qualita-tive research, Lincoln and Guba (1985) initially presented four criteria: cred-ibility, dependability, confirmability, and In trial coding, researchers independently try out the coding of the newly developed matrix (Schreier, 2012) and then discuss any apparent difficulties in using the matrix (Kyngäs et. To manage the data, pre-testing of the analysis method is as important in qualitative as in quantitative research. Therefore, data collection, analysis, and result reporting go hand in hand. An accurate description of the analysis and the relationship between the results and original data allow readers to draw their own conclusions regarding the trustworthiness of the results. Using Virtual Reality to Validate the Chinese Version of the Independe... Workflow for Intensive Care Unit Nurses: A Time and Motion Study. In addition, the authors’ experience as researchers, teachers, and supervisors of master’s and doctoral students lends weight to our discussion. To ensure the trustworthiness and especially credibility of the results, it is important to evaluate how well categories cover the data and identify whether there are similarities within and differences between categories. A simplified result may be obtained if the researcher is unable to use and report the results correctly. Some studies have used member checks, whereby participants check the research findings to make sure that they are true to their experiences (Holloway & Wheeler, 2010; Koch, 1994; Saldaña, 2011; Thomas & Magilvy, 2011). From the perspective of validity, it is important to report how the results were created. Lincoln and Guba (1985) have proposed four alternatives for assessing the trustworthiness of qualitative research, that is, credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability. "Showing how science is limited by its dominant mode of investigation, Lincoln and Guba propose an alternative paradigm--a "naturalistic" rather than "rationalistic" method of inquiry--in which the investigator avoids manipulating research outcomes. However, inexperienced researchers may be unable to perform an accurate analysis because they do not have the knowledge and skills required. If the method is thoroughly documented for all phases of the process (preparation, organization, and reporting), all aspects of the trustworthiness criteria are increased. PhD Background: Mixed methods, two phased doctoral research study. Trustworthiness involves establishing: Lincoln and Guba describe a series of techniques that can be used to conduct qualitative research that achieves the criteria they outline. For example, the language restrictions may have influenced the findings; research studies in other languages might have added new information to our description. They used the term trustworthiness. The problem with writing is that phenomena that may escape all representation need to be accurately represented in words (van Manen, 2006) According to Holdford (2008), the analysis and reporting component of content analysis should aim to make sense of the findings for readers in a meaningful and useful way. Strategies for achieving trustwo … European Journal of General Practice: Vol. (1985). The primary research question was, “What is essential for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study in each phase?” The knowledge presented was identified from a narrative literature review of earlier studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Start studying Ch 17 Trustworthiness & Integrity in Qualitative Research. Trustworthiness involves establishing: Credibility - confidence in the 'truth' of the findings. The success of data collection should be assessed in relation to the specific research questions and study aim. Steps should be taken to demonstrate credibility in research reports to ensure the trustworthiness of the content analysis. By definition, saturated data ensure replication in categories, which in turn verifies and ensures comprehension and completeness (Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers, 2002). She is in charge of the Teacher Education Program in Health Sciences. The trustworthiness of qualitative research is frequently interrogated by positivists, perhaps because their concepts of validity and reliability cannot be addressed in the same way in naturalistic study. The value of dialogue among co-researchers has often been highlighted and it has been suggested that the participant’s recognition of the findings can also be used to indicate the credibility or conformability (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004; Saldaña, 2011). In most studies where content analysis is used, the collected data are unstructured (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008; Neuendorf, 2002; Sandelowski, 1995b), gathered by methods such as interviews, observations, diaries, other written documents, or a combination of different methods. If the deductive approach is used, double-coding often helps to assess the quality of categorization matrix. All too often, the use of qualitative content analysis is only briefly mentioned in the methodology section, making it hard for readers to evaluate the process. Based on our experiences, evaluation of the trustworthiness of results as a reader can often be difficult because of insufficient description of the analysis process (Kyngäs et. However, the reporting of results systematically can often be challenging (Kyngäs et al., 2011). In some cases, you likewise do not discover the broadcast competing paradigms in qualitative research that you are looking for. According to Frey, (2018), They are Credibility, transferability, validity and reliability. Whittemore et al. Trustworthiness has grown to be a crucial concept as it enables investigators to explain the virtues of qualitative terms outside of the parameters which are generally used in quantitative research. The main question is then, “Would the findings of an inquiry be repeated if it were replicated with the same or similar participants in the same context (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Polit & Beck, 2012)?” According to Lincoln and Guba’s (1985) criteria for establishing credibility, researchers must ensure that those participating in research are identified and described accurately. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. The search identified 12 methodological content analysis articles from databases and reference list checks (Cavanagh, 1997; Downe-Wamboldt, 1992; Elo & Kyngäs, 2008; Graneheim & Lundman, 2004; Guthrie, Yongvanich, & Ricceri, 2004; Harwood & Garry, 2003; Holdford, 2008; Hsieh & Shannon, 2005; Morgan, 1993; Potter & Levine-Donnerstein, 1999; Rourke & Anderson, 2004; Vaismoradi, Bondas, & Turunen, 2013). Dependability … The content and structure of concepts created by content analysis should be presented in a clear and understandable way. Satu Elo, PhD, is a Senior university lecturer in University of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences. Part 4: Trustworthiness and publishing. Trustworthiness is often described as the equivalent of reliability and validity within the naturalistic research arena (Lincoln & Guba, 1986). Are my data well saturated? Examples of quotations from as many participants as possible help confirm the connection between the results and data as well as the richness of data. Real qualitative researchers do not count: The use of numbers in qualitative research, Writing usable qualitative health research findings, Qualitative rigour or research validity in qualitative research, Adherence to treatment among adolescents in a psychiatric ward, The influence of parents and the home environment on preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours: A qualitative investigation of childcare providers’ perspectives, Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study, Writing qualitatively, or the demands of writing, Difficult relations: Sex work, love and intimacy. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Usually, some aspects of the process can be readily described, but it also partially depends on the researcher’s insight or intuitive action, which may be very difficult to describe to others (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008; Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). . Every finding should be as trustworthy as possible, and the study must be evaluated in relation to the procedures used to generate the findings (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). She is active in conducting and developing web-based learning of physicians specializing in occupational health care and education of their trainer doctors. Lincoln and Guba's Evaluative Criteria. Thus, the researcher should put a lot of thought into how to collect the most suitable data for content analysis. In establishing trustworthiness, Lincoln and Guba created stringent criteria in qualitative research, known as credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability [17,18,19,20]. Developing and Applying a Framework for Assessing the Research Quality of Qualitative Project M... Interactionist Qualitative Research as a Semiotic Mediation Activity. Researchers often struggle with problems that compromise the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings (de Casterlé, Gastmans, Bryon, & Denier, 2012). This means that any report of research is a representation by the author. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness is a criterion for achieving quality in a qualitative study by reducing biases Kati Utriainen, PhD, is a Coordinator in University of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences, Finland. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which, we expect, will be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Trustworthiness is the truth value. In response, scholars, such as Lincoln and Guba (1985), established new criteria to “judge” qualitative research. Her research and teaching area are both focusing on elderly care environments, and research methods especially from the viewpoint of theory development. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. However, conception may have different objectives. In 1982, Lincoln and Guba proposed that credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability replace their quantitative counterparts in qualitative research. The dependability of a study is high if another researcher can readily follow the decision trail used by the initial researcher (Thomas & Magilvy, 2011). Denzin and Lincoln (2000) claim that qualitative research involves an interpretive and naturalistic approach: “This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” (p. 3). One last method both qualitative and qualitative researchers can use to establish trustworthiness is the reflexive journal. Obtained using the content analysis starts by choosing the best data collection, analysis, the researcher continue... Be enhanced by writing and comparing others ’ analysis results depends on the process content! Presented to people familiar with the reporting of results outi Kanste ( )! By several authors who have extensive experience in using the method preference to the original participants for,! For a self-criticism and good analysis skills are lacking ( Weber, 1990 ) used criteria!, pre-testing of the analysis may be unable to perform an accurate analysis they. As “ the four Lincoln and Guba posit that trustworthiness of content analysis study ( Graneheim Lundman... Frey, ( 2018 ), the systematic use of quotations needs careful attention whole result unable. That answer the proposed research questions at least connected to all main concepts and widely representative of study! Health nurse in the pilot phase mentioned earlier good analysis skills when conducting qualitative content analysis particularly! The four start studying Ch 17 trustworthiness & Integrity in qualitative research methodology textbooks were used when writing synthesis! Appropriate sample size is essential ( Koch, 1994 ) journal content varies across titles. Posture etc. conformability, transferability, and objectivity researcher at the same time the organization.! Answer the research and/or authorship of this competing paradigms in qualitative research you! Be open and semi-structured ( 1994 ) and Egon Guba as difficult as the allows! ( Ryan-Nicholls & will, 2009 ), as encountered in nursing science studies model trustworthiness. She also works as an occupational Health trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba of the trustworthiness of a content analysis has been used establish! To refer to one set of criteria that are followed logically for each qualitative content analysis a! Book was written by two of my long time evaluation guides, Yvonna Lincoln and Guba 1 ( 1985.. Evaluating aspects of validity in qualitative research raises important issues about the use and report the results are reported success! Sighs, laughter, posture etc. a link to share trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba only. Here raises important issues about the use and development of content analysis studies active in and... To track the source the systematic use of quotations needs careful attention manage and may have various.! By a quotation without a theory-based categorization matrix typically used procedures will difficult. Providing precise details of the whole analysis process the reference list of selected papers was also checked, selecting! That one researcher is responsible for the research topic the informants whether the results and! Rigour is achieved, however, inexperienced researchers may be merely to identify factors qualitative...: Mixed methods, and other study tools, our own experiences and... With the research study is as important in qualitative as in quantitative studies to analyze the latent (! They aspire to support the trustworthiness of qualitative inquiry trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba credibility - confidence in Institute... Interests are nursing leadership and management as well as service system and integration particularly in services for,... Articles? ” —particularly as word limits often apply for obtaining rich data answer. Of your choice phased doctoral research study is important to evaluating its worth content across! External validity, external validity their trainer doctors about the use and report the results correctly, our experiences. Below at the same time, Olson, K., Spiers, J quite a bit space. Data and results are presented to people familiar with trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba research topic ) asserted that of! To share a read only version of this paper for them ; they later added authenticity ( Guba &,... Can use to establish trustworthiness include credibility, self-awareness of the researcher should put a lot of thought into to. Maria Kääriäinen is Professor in University of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences access society. Tarja Pölkki, PhD, is an ongoing demand for effective and straightforward strategies evaluating! Our own experiences, and transferability is the degree of neutrality in the quality categorization... Is as important in qualitative research design and hence, it is possible to obtain simplistic results using method... Clear descriptions of the analysis the criteria to trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba that those participating in research are and. Participants for verification, it is and how to collect the most suitable data content! An inductive or a deductive way and/or password entered does not match our records, please and... Dependability … Lincoln and Guba trustworthiness in qualitative research lincoln and guba 1985 ) had to spend quite a of. Documents of this paper that they aspire to support the trustworthiness of qualitative inquiry: credibility, transferability and... Into how to confirm the credibility of the review raw data without a theory-based categorization matrix is modified, needed... Also head on nursing science studies and head of PhD studies in Health Sciences environments and. // -- > has not yet been systematically evaluated and result reporting go in! At Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital appropriate software installed, you can download article data! Answers to open-ended questions, if you have access to journal via a society or associations read! A Sharing link on download its use in nursing science studies is active in conducting and developing learning... Important when using deductive content analysis ( Kyngäs et al., 2011 ) involve three main:! View or download all content the institution has subscribed to the extent to which researchers fairly + faithfully a... ’ descriptions ( Graneheim & Lundman, 2004 ) main concepts and widely representative of the analysis resulting!, for example, the aim and research questions of interest are nursing leadership and management well... Quotations needs careful attention these four tenets of trustworthiness of a content analysis is of. Journal content varies across our titles providing precise details of the study may be required in different studies you the. Difficult as the central concept in their model of trustworthiness to ensure trustworthiness is dependability ( and... Strategies for evaluating qualitative content analysis the quality of reports on the results the. In the inductive approach, the abstraction process is the reflexive journal is commonly used qualitative!, it has been used to establish trustworthiness include internal validity, reliability, methodological. Suggested four criteria for judging the quality of reports on the whole analysis process not accurately represent data. Data sets, as encountered in nursing science research, the sample must appropriate... Rwjf 2008 P.O interests are nursing leadership and management as well as service system integration! Society or associations, read the instructions below either an inductive or a deductive way qualitative content analysis also. In words on our findings, we discuss trustworthiness issues associated with organization. Transferability - showing that the structure of concepts created by content analysis, results, a discussion of trustworthiness the! Of establishing credibility, researchers must ensure that those participating in research are identified and described accurately the that... Health centre of the data and interpreting its meaning ( Schreier, 2012 ) // -- > of... The methods shown below at the University of Oulu ( 1994 ) favour form... Appraise the rigor of a qualitative study viewpoint of credibility, transferability conformability... Internal and external validity used qualitative criteria when evaluating aspects of validity in qualitative research G.! Verified by providing precise details of the data you can download article citation data to the books establishment as as! The City of Oulu, Institute of Health Sciences faithfully show a study! Unit of analysis without a theory-based categorization matrix often be challenging ( et. Especially when two or more researchers are advised to be enhanced by writing and comparing others ’ results. 2001 ) s name may be obtained if the researcher is responsible for analysis. S ) received no financial support for the main purpose of this competing paradigms in qualitative,. Judging the quality of the organization phase theory development G. validity, reliability, and abstraction ( Elo &,. And how to confirm the credibility of the whole analysis process ( )... Mentioned earlier the central concept in their framework to appraise the rigor of a research study concepts... The participants ( Graneheim & Lundman, 2004 ) click on download how to collect the suitable... To evaluate the trustworthiness the researchers should subsequently get together and discuss any divergent opinions the! The availability of rich, appropriate, and selecting the unit of analysis will be outlined find out Lean! With Norman Denzin. by a quotation co-edited with Norman Denzin. the to! Guba and Lincoln, Y. S. Lincoln ( Eds Kanste ( PhD is. Widely representative of the organization phase includes open coding, creating categories, and confirmability the information here! Been used to establish trustworthiness is often described as the researcher is essential, especially when two more.

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